A Brief Description
A Brief Description
How it works?
Detailed Pin Diagram
Group Members Information
In this Project we have designed an embedded system which is used for automatically turning on/off
street lights on sensing the movement of the pedestrians or vehicles in the streets. In addition
it will inform the concerned authority on detecting any faulty or damaged street light by using
Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) and GSM Module.
Street lighting is one of the basic infrastructures of a city. Pedestrians and vehicles use streets differently at different hours in regular basis. If we carefully observe their movement, we notice that the streets may not be busy all the time. That means we can find out some random times in which the streets remain unused. We model this observation in a probabilistic manner to find out absence or presence of pedestrians in the streets. These observations are useful to switch on/off the lights. Our aim is to develop a system that would serve several purposes. It will turn on the street lights in case of absence of daylight and turn them off otherwise. Subsequently at night both pedestrians and vehicles are less likely to use the streets after a certain period. Therefore to keep the lights turned on at that time is a waste of energy. Our smart system senses movement of the pedestrians as well as vehicles in the streets and turn the lights off or on accordingly. If the intensity level of any light falls below a certain threshold level, our smart system will notify the authority about this faulty behaviour by sending an SMS.
In this project Arduino Uno is used for interfacing with various hardware peripherals. It reads the states of LDR and PIR sensor data by polling. Arduino takes decision from the received data of the sensors to turn on specific lights. LDR1 detects the light intensity of atmosphere. PIR sensor detects whether a pedestrian or a vehicle passes by. If atmosphere is dark and a pedestrian or a vehicle passes by, then light turns on. LDR2 measures the light intensity of street lamp. If the value of LDR2 is less than a threshold value given that street lamp is turned on, then our system considers the lamp as out of service. System detects the lamp identification (ID) number and sends this ID number to authorities using GSM module. Using that ID number, the location of lamp is detected.
fig.1 Block Diagram
2.GSM transmitter is turned on
3.If LDR1 value goes under a threshold
4. If PIR senses a Movement
5.light is turned on
6.If LDR2 value goes under a threshold
7.Send a Message using the light's ID
8.else go to 6
9.else go to 3
fig.2 Pin Diagram
The most difficult part was to tune the PIR sensor. The PIR sensor works in a very difficult manner. The PIR sensor itself has two slots in it, each slot is made of a special material that is sensitive to IR. When the sensor is idle, both slots detect the same amount of IR, the ambient amount radiated from the room or walls or outdoors. When a warm body like a human or animal passes by, it first intercepts one half of the PIR sensor, which causes a positive differential change between the two halves. When the warm body leaves the sensing area, the reverse happens, whereby the sensor generates a negative differential change. These change pulses are what is detected. So we had to cover the outside part of the PIR sensor with black tape to make it more usable.
The GSM module needed 3.5-4.5V to work properly. Where as Arduino gave us 5V. So we used resistors and voltage divider law to solve the problem.
On the day before the submission, we completed our project in the AI lab and brought it to the interfacing lab. There we found out that the GSM module was not working properly whereas it was working properly in the AI lab. After spending a lot of time we found out that a jumper wire was torn inside and as a result it was not working properly.
Section B2: Group 4
Md. Fazlay Rabbi Masum Billah (1205074)
Dipto Das (1205080)
Imtiaz Karim (1205098)
Shuha Nabila (1205102)
Arnob Paul (1205104)
Md. Abdus Sattar, Associate Professor, Dept. of CSE, BUET
Md. Aashikur Rahman Azim, Lecturer, Dept. of CSE, BUET
Md. Iftekharul Islam Sakib, Lecturer, Dept. of CSE, BUET
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