Information representation; Measuring performance; Instructions and data access methods: operations and operands of computer hardware, representing instruction, addressing styles; Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operations, floating point operations, designing ALU; Processor design: datapaths â€" single cycle and multicycle implementations; Control Unit design - hardwared and microprogrammed; Hazards; Exceptions; Pipeline: pipelined datapath and control, superscalar and dynamic pipelining; Memory organization: cache, virtual memory, channels; DMA and Interrupts; Buses; Multiprocessors: types of multiprocessors, performance, single bus multiprocessors, multiprocessors connected by network, clusters.